Parts & Pieces H-02.07 to H-02.13 = About the U.S.A.; A Journey Through America: Student Text & Instructor’s Manual; English Through Citizenship: the Game
There are so many reasons why Citizens, Residents, Immigrants, Visitors, and nearly everyone in the world should concern themselves with (the Art & Science of) Information, Concepts, Principles, Practices, Ideas, & Intelligence about Civics, Political Theory, Governance & Government, Matters of State & Statesmanship, Foreign Affairs, and other Topics related to Global Social Studies (Geography, History, Economics, Sociology, Anthropology, and more).
More briefly, Civics Education about the World is vitally important to the Survival of Civil Society on their significance & universality:
So what are your definitions of lexical items related to civic; such as civic center (duty, pride, virtue, etc.); civics education; civil (case, defense, war, disobedience, rights, service, society, etc.); civilian, civilized, civilization; citizen, citizenry, citizenship; and so on? Scholarly, analytical (online) articles on the history & importance of such topics are plentiful. One of the most comprehensive is at https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/BrookingsPolicy2020_BigIdeas_Winthrop_CivicEducation.pdf, but there are many others attempting to answer the question “Why Is It Important to Learn About Civics?” Here’s only a small portion of the phrasing that appears in many people’s responses to the query:
Civic education empowers us to be well-informed, active citizens and gives us the opportunity to change the world around us. It is a vital part of any democracy, and equips ordinary people with knowledge about our republic and our Constitution.
A proper civics education teaches the very basics of how government works. Students learn about its executive, judicial, and legislative branches and why these three divisions must work together to pass and enforce laws.
Civic instruction & training is the study of the theoretical, political and practical aspects of citizenship, as well as its rights and duties. It should help young people acquire and learn to use the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will prepare them to be competent and responsible citizens throughout their lives.
Civics often involves the study of citizens’ interaction with government and its role in residents’ lives. Social Studies is the study of human interaction in society and culture.
Examples of civic participation include socially responsible personal & professional behavior; researching & voting; volunteering & participating in group activities; direct service; advocacy & education; philanthropic giving; and community gardening.
Civics is a science as well as an art. Together, these help to combat totalitarianism. If you know the significance / importance of voting + other kinds of participation, you are being scientific. Casting votes & deciding skillfully make civics an art.
Studying civics builds new literacy skills necessary for gathering information to make reasoned decisions on critical issues affecting a country and the world. Increased volunteerism and work on community issues enhances democratic accountability of elected officials, improving government transparency.
A civics & citizenship curriculum develops students' knowledge of political & legal institutions. It explores the nature of citizenship in a liberal democracy.
Schooling in civics enhances “21st century competencies” valued by colleges, universities and employers. It closes the civic achievement gap across race, ethnicity, income, and parental educational attainment. It lowers school dropout rates, creating a positive climate that supports students’ social, emotional, and physical safety.
At least locally, many of the references that come up in articles and commentary on civics topics refer specifically to U.S.A (United States of America) Civics & Social Studies. Here are a few of the images that appear when the notion is entered into a search engine:
So—especially for educators / students dealing with Language Study & Learning in addition to U.S. Civics & (Sheltered) Social Studies, what are some (other) Products offered (mostly) online by Authors & Editors / Worklife English? Directed at Intermediate & Beyond learners, here are several that present, practice, assess understanding of, and otherwise deal with these interrelated areas of interest: Symbols & Holidays; Americans; Geography; Citizenship; the U.S. Constitution; Federal, State, & Local Government; U.S. History.
H-02.07 a & b, H-02.08, and H-02.09 a & b English Through Citizenship Student Texts, Instructor’s Manual, Test Packages; Intermediate Level. [SEE "H-02.10 ABOUT THE U.S.A., a Compact Course of “Americana + Social Studies”]
Originally, our Intermediate Level of English Through Citizenship was divided into two books, with H-02.07 a & b being the Intermediate Level Student Books; H-02.08 the Intermediate Instructor’s Manual; and H-02.09 a & b the Intermediate Level Test Packages. For English-Language Students & New Readers of up to Eighth-Grade Level of Reading Ability & Learning Proficiency, these five (5) books offered a complete, somewhat adapted, Course of Study in “Sheltered (U.S.A.) Social Studies”:
Sheltered instruction is a means for making grade-level content, such as science, social studies, and math, more accessible for English language learners (ELLs) while also promoting English development. Sheltered instruction is said to be the most influential instructional innovation since the 1970s, particularly because it addresses the needs of secondary students. The approach was first introduced in the early 1980s as a way to use second-language acquisition strategies while teaching content-area instruction. It teaches academic subject matter and its associated vocabulary, concepts, and skills by using language and context to make the information comprehensible.
In 2005 the relevant Content of the E.T.C. Intermediate-Level Student Texts was reorganized and reissued by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Cultural & Educational Affairs English Language Programs for use in U.S. Embassies around the world. The result was a book called About the U.S.A. To see what it contains, just read on and/or click on its Underlined Title.
H-02.10 About the U.S.A contains 128 pages of Reading / Writing + Listening / Speaking material for presentation of, practice with, interaction about, and assessment of acquisition of nine (9) Units of Sheltered Social Studies, divided into 34 three – or four - page pedagogical Modules. Here’s its Table of Contents, interspersed with Commentary that suggests Methodology & Approaches:
Unit 1: Symbols & Holidays. Module 1A = American Symbols; 1B = Thanksgiving & Independence Day; 1C = More National Holidays
Pages 1 to 4 (Module 1A) begin an abbreviated, illustrated “History of the American Flag + Pledge of Allegiance.” After a comprehension check, text-users number historical versions of the banner in chronological order—and explain them. They engage with (the history of) More American Symbols—the Declaration of Independence, Liberty Bell, Statue of Liberty, American Eagle, Donkey Vs. Elephant; Uncle Sam. They match sentence parts, complete True / False Exercises, and learn (to sing?) the National Anthem.
The next four-page Module 1B contains adapted Reading about the two most familiar All-American Holidays: Thanksgiving & Independence Day. Learners exhibit understanding of the text by matching phrases, discerning assertions as True or False, filling in blanks, and completing a Chart comparing the two occasions. Then in Module 1C, they learn more about more Legal Holidays in the U.S., including MLK Jr., Presidents’, Memorial, Labor, Columbus, & Veterans’ Day. There are a Date & Purpose Chart, a Sentence Template to use as a model, short Selections to read, vocabulary-rich items to recognize, and Beyond-the-Text discussion questions to give, get, or research answers to.
Unit 2: Americans. Module 2A = Famous Presidents; 2B = The History of Immigration; 2C = Historical Figures; 2D = Some Immigration Stories
Famous U.S. Presidents in History that text users are to read & talk about (in Module 2A on pages 13-16) are George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, & John F. Kennedy. Participants get and then match facts about and quotes from their four Presidencies, hopefully becoming curious enough about other presidential terms of office to do pertinent research.
In Module 2B on pages 17-18 there’s a Dyad (Paired) Activity in which students teach one another about Waves of Immigration from the 1500’s through the 1900’s—Native Americans; the British & other Europeans; the Spanish; Irish Catholics & Germans; the Chinese; the “Great Migration”; Asians & Latin Americans. On the next two pages, they continue “Cooperative / Collaborative Learning” with information about Changes in Immigration + Immigration Law.
Module 2C: Historical Figures introduced with their achievements (pages 21 to 24) are James John Audubon, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Cesar Chavez, Samuel Clemens, Thomas A. Edison, Duke Ellington, Henry Ford, Benjamin Franklin, Hideyo Naguchi, Eleanor Roosevelt, & Lawrence Welk. There are plenty of biographical facts to organize and match—and to use as patterns & cues for further inquiry into (Famous People in) U.S. History.
Module 2D introduces four (4) fictitious “Composite Immigrants,” whose Immigration Stories reflect the experience of Irish-born Catholics, Chinese, Russian Jews, & Mexican-Americans. There are T / F items that assess understanding of historical information about U.S. Immigration. Learners are to recognize assertions as factual (or not), correcting False statements.
Unit 3: Geography. Module 3A = The Geography of the United States; 3B = Famous Places; 3C & 3D = States & Cities—the West & the East
The four-page Module 3A (pages 28-43) has text-users absorb general info on the Geography of the U.S. They identify spaces where there are oceans, mountains, rivers, lakes, & deserts—and judge the veracity of comments about them. On a North American map, they place features like Canada, Mexico, & Alaska; the Hawaiian Islands & Gulf of Mexico; the Ohio, Missouri, Colorado, & Rio Grande Rivers; the Rocky, Cascade, & Sierra Nevada Mountains; Lakes Huron, Erie, Ontario, & Michigan; the Great Salt Lake; the Painted & Gila Deserts.
Have you / your students ever toured the nation’s capital, Washington D.C.? Module 4B (pages 31-35) enables you / them to “visit” Famous Sites on an authentic City Map while learning facts about them. Then you / they get to locate Other Famous Places—attractions like the Golden Gate Bridge, redwoods & sequoias (trees); Monument Valley; Grand Canyon & Yellowstone National Parks; Mount Rushmore; the Gateway Arch; New York City; Niagara Falls.
Well-known U.S. Cities & States are mentioned in Modules 4C & 4D on pages 36 to 43. Partners collaborate in filling in the names of these in divided U.S. Maps: first the Western Half, then the East. Can you / your students recognize U.S. States from their shapes or main cities? Try doing so in Exercises C on pages 38 & 42. Can you refurbish out-of-date data on States’ Rankings in Land Area & Population? You’ll get a chance to apply what you find out in Exercises E on pages 39 & 43. Work together to create True / False sentences about the states for others to accept or correct. Finally, play the classic verbal Game of (U.S.) Geography. It will enhance both Vocabulary (of Proper Nouns) & Spelling.
Unit 4: the History of the United States. Module 4A = Overview of U.S. History. 4B = Exploration & Colonization. 4C = Revolution. Module 4D = Growth & Westward Movement. 4E = The Time of the Civil War. 4F = Industrialization. 4G = The U.S. Becomes a World Power. 4H = Modern Times. 4I = Local History
The four-page Module 4A gives an Overview of U.S. History by dividing it into ten approximate Eras (Periods of Time):
European discoverers & explorers came to the New Land & become colonists.
For freedom from British rule, Thirteen (13) Colonies fought a Revolutionary War.
The U.S. Constitution became the Highest Law in the Land; George Washington became the first U.S. President.
Millions came to America as workers. The nation expanded to the Pacific Ocean.
There was a Civil War between the North & the South. Slaves were freed. Reconstruction began.
The U.S. grew to be a great power. It fought in World War I. Women got the vote.
The Great Depression began, ending with New Deal Government.
The U.S. entered World War II, helping to end it with the atomic bomb.
In the Nuclear Age, there was a Cold War. The Civil Rights Movement began.
In the Space Age, there was a Women’s Liberation Movement. Computerization began changing the nation and the world faster and faster . . . .
The rest of the Module consists of dates to match with occurrences, events to put into Time Order, T / F Statements to evaluate / rectify, and an American History Chain-of-Events Game.
Module 4B deals with Exploration & Colonization. It brings up Christopher Columbus’ “discoveries,” Spanish, British, & French explorers; St. Augustine (FL) & Jamestown (VA); 13 Settlements; and settlers’ relations with “American Indians.” There are Facts about the Thirteen Original Colonies.
The Causes of the American Revolution form the core of material in 4C. These are explained in illustrated paragraphs. They’re followed by categorizing / matching exercises, an “Events of the Revolutionary War” Chart; Sentence- Pattern Templates for use in stating facts; and a historical U.S. map.
Growth & Western Movement fill Module 4D, which supplies details in From the Atlantic to the Pacific in Fifty Years (the Louisiana Purchase 1803, Annexation of Texas 1845, Oregon Territory 1846, Mexican Cession 1848, Gadsden Purchase 1853). There’s text + comprehension checks on Moving West in Wagon Trains, Difficult Years in Texas, and Some Principles of the Times.
What’s the Subject Matter of Presentation & Practice in Module 4E? It’s the Time of the Civil War, which includes its Causes, the Strengths of Both Sides, and its Main Events. Industrialization comes up in Module 4F, as partners work together to teach / learn about The Industrial Revolution & The Time of Reconstruction. Then come data and a Chart about A Political Party (Populists) & a Movement (Progressive).
In Module 4G, The U.S. Becomes a World Power. There are sections to cover co-operatively about World War I & the Great Depression. World War II plus its aftermath (the United Nations, the Cold War) follow. Then in Module 4H, designed only to begin discourse + discussion of Modern Times, participants review / learn more about what happened after World War II (the Korean & Vietnam Wars; the Atomic Age & the Age of Technology). To stimulate interest in or inquisitiveness about present times and the future, there’s reference to & acknowledgement of the Civil Rights Movement, “Women’s Liberation,” and other trends or currents leading to major change and (hopefully) progress.
In Module 4I, Local History, call-outs (illustrations of events on a U.S. Map) are introduce seven (7) short readings: in groups, learners teach one another about Revolutionary-War rebels in Cambridge MA in 1775; French settlers in St. Louis MO & the Steamboat Era on the Mississippi (River) in the 1800s; clashes between proslavery Southerners and abolitionists in 1850s Kansas; treatment of Chinese railroad workers in 1860s California; a
punishing 1863-64 Navajo March in Arizona & New Mexico; the 1893-1906 Oklahoma “Land Rush”; organized crime in Chicago IL in the early 1900’s. Then there are comprehension checks, review, and directives for continuing research.
Unit 5: The U.S. Constitution. Module 5A = Overview of the U.S. Constitution; 5B = Basic Rights & Freedoms
To begin or renew study of what is traditionally viewed as U.S. Civics look at Unit 5: Modules 5A & 5B: Overview of the U.S. Constitution / Basic Rights & Freedoms. These pages start with an Intro that lists the Constitution’s three (3) Main Principles: Separation of Powers; Government of, for, & by the People; Basic Human Rights. It continues with its three Parts: the Preamble, which tells its purposes; the Document’s Seven Articles, which outlines the functions of the Legislative, Executive, & Judicial Branches; relationships of the States to the Federal Government, and among themselves; and the role of the Constitution; and its first 26 Amendments, Including the Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10). Text users demonstrate their skills by filling in blanks and answering questions. They use templates to state facts about the Amendments—when they were ratified and what they say (about rights, legal action, voting, naturalization & citizenship, Presidents’ terms of office, and more). The next three-page Module 5B has more references to these but is missing a whole-page section.
Unit 6: the Federal Government. Module 6A = Overview of U.S. Government; 6B = The Legislative Branch; 6C = the Executive Branch; 6D = The Judicial Branch
Module 6A reiterates that in the American System of Government, the Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land. The three (3) Branches of Federal Government are the Legislative, Executive, Judicial. Text users learn to answer these questions about each Branch: “What does it consist of?” “What are its responsibilities?” “What powers does it have under the system of Checks & Balances?” Brief discussion of Political Parties, especially the Democratic & Republican, follows.
After Review Questions about 6B: the Legislative Branch of Government, there are Facts About Congress, Sentence Patterns to complete in at least two ways; a Chart on How Congress Makes Laws, and blanks to fill in.
6C: the Executive Branch presents / practices info about the offices of U.S. President / Vice President in a Dyad (Paired) Information-Gap activity. Next come facts about the Cabinet, the Departments, & the Agencies. As text-users respond to True / False Items and complete the statement “It is the responsibility of . . . to . . . . ” in various ways, they’re likely to (want to research,) acquire, and add to
their knowledge about the names. functions, and histories of these sections of organization.
Module 6D displays an Organizational Chart of the Judicial Branch to understand and explain. There’s a Table of major Supreme Court Decisions from 1803 to 1987 to refer to when matching these to relevant Legal Situations.
Unit 7: State Government. Module 7A = Branches of Government & Officials; 7B = Functions, Powers, & Services
In Module 7A, with “Information Gap” input, students work together to exchange facts about Federal Vs. State Government. They do the same to complete Organizational Charts about their structures. To compare & contrast the two verbally, they can insert Vocabulary into Sentence Patterns. Finally, they can “edit” the text of a paragraph about the Executive Branch of State Government so that it applies to their own state(s). (Comparable activities regarding the Legislative & Judicial Branches of State Government have been omitted from this text version, so teachers / learners may want to research these on their own.)
“What can the Federal Government do that State Government can’t?” “What does a state do that the Federal Government doesn’t do? “What do both governments do?” “What programs does the Federal Government provide funding for and state governments maintain?” These are the questions that Module 7B answers, by listing information for each of these separately and then both of them together. Then there’s a selection on Separation of Powers in State Government to read and understand.
Unit 8: Local Government. Module 8A = County & City Services; 8B = County Government; 8C = City Government
In Module 8A, five sections outline functions of various Public Services: Police & Fire Departments, Public Safety, Public Works, Public Health, Social Services + Parks & Recreation. Students work together to attain, share, and prove they understand this information. Then they take a real or virtual “tour” of their own City / Town Hall, seeking and hopefully finding the answers to questions about Financing, Law, Transportation, Commerce, City Planning, & Personnel.
Module 8B starts with reading + sentences to finish about the Structure of County Government. There’s a Chart on County Officials (other than Supervisors or Commissioners), such as a County Attorney, Sheriff, Assessor, Treasurer, Engineer, Superintendent of Schools, Clerk. Preferably while or after investigating their own county works, students in pairs ask and answer questions.
The Structure of City Government is the main topic of 8C, which students get to understand by working with Sentence Patterns that have slots for “Law-Making Body,” “How Chosen?” “Chief Executive,” “Functions & Powers.” These can help them create paragraphs that begin “In our form of city government, . . . .” Some sections from the original English Through Citizenship, Intermediate Level, are missing, but there’s material on Getting Involved with Local Government + The Board of Education.
Unit 9: Citizenship. Module 9A = The Duties of Citizens; 9B = Voting; 9C = Election Issues
“Do you know the responsibilities of a U.S. citizen?” begins Module 9A. Text users classify 18 imperative sentences as “things you must do,” “things you should or may do,” and “things you mustn’t or shouldn’t do. Then they complete a Sentence Template that begins “As a citizen, you have to / mustn’t / ought to / shouldn’t . . . .” with phrasing like “oppose the Constitution,” “protect your own rights,” “obey the laws,” “serve in the Armed Forces,” “serve on a jury,” “pay taxes,” “register to vote,” and so on. Assertions to agree or disagree with follow. Then there’s suggested activity based on “Letters to the Editors” about current issues.
Voting is the topic of 9B, which starts with Questions to Discuss about Elections. The next page shows Answers to Questions that curious participants might ask, but the Questions are missing. Can you reconstruct them from the Answers—and perhaps collect more relevant information? The third page of the Module has reproduced sections of an old ballot to interpret.
In a selection titled The Power of the People, 9C: Election Issues explains Initiatives & Referendums. Then there are Exercises. After reading An Example of a Ballot Initiative, learners list Arguments For & Against a typical Measure. Similarly, An Example of a Referendum is followed things to do to assure comprehension. And finally, Election Issues (which, surprisingly, are mostly still relevant even today) are listed in Yes / No Questions. Groups can use them—and other (more recent) Issues to plan and have “Political Debates.”
H-02.11 to H-02.12 A Journey Through America Student Book + A Journey Through America Instructor’s Manual (I.M.)
H-02.11 = A Journey Through America Student Book and H-02.12 = A Journey Through America Instructor’s Manual (I.M.) were derived from H-02.07 a & b = English Through Citizenship (E.T.C.) Intermediate Level A & B Student Books; H-02.08 = E.T.C. Intermediate Instructor’s Manual; and H-02.09 a & b = E.T.C. Intermediate Level A & B Test Packages. The two "Journey" Books comprise an Intermediate-Level package containing nearly all the pages of E.T.C. Intermediate Level. The main differences are that:
The E.T.C. A & B Test Packages are no longer separate texts. Instead, they take up half of the Journey Through America I.M. And instead of a Pretest & Posttest for each Module, there’s only one 20-Item Test.
The Journey Through America Student Book contains 144 pages—as compared to the 92 x 2 (= 184) pages of the two E.T.C. Intermediate A & B Student Books. That’s because to make the text more “international,” some of the Four-Page Modules were removed: two (2) for non-citizens needing practice in telling about Family or Employment—and seven (7) containing (specific) information about State & Local Geography & History. These nine (9) Modules (36 pages) have been reinserted at the end of the Journey Through America I.M.
A Journey Through America Student Book also replicates H-02.10 About the U.S.A. in most ways. Their Units of Content do differ a little, however. For comparison & contrast, here are the covers of the two texts plus their Tables of Contents.
H-02.12 A Journey Through America Instructor’s Manual (I.M.) has sections not included in other Teacher’s Editions or Teaching Manuals. Here’s what is in it:
A Journey Through America: A General Description gives information about the Organization of the two-book package, its Level of Difficulty, and H-02.13, English Through Citizenship: the Game. Its General Instructions for Use include sections on Using the Modules of the Journey Through America Student Book (Presentation of Information, Reading Selections, Reading Comprehension, “Pattern Drills”) and Cooperative Learning (The “Traditional Way,” Whole-Class Activities, Paired [Information-Gap] & Small-Group Activities).
The six pages of 100 U.S. Citizenship Questions & Answers had been updated but may not reflect more recent changes. They are useful for review and as a general guide, however, to prompt more investigation of the kinds of knowledge that educators and officials might consider significant.
There are Instructions on How to Give the Tests that follow—one two-page, 20-item, reproducible Multiple-Choice Quiz to correspond to each of the 36 Modules 1A to 10H. Then there are ten pages of Answer Keys for Text Exercises & Tests.
The Journey Through America I.M. ends with nine (9) Modules (two for Non-Citizens; seven About Your State & City) to reprint / copy as needed, perhaps for the use by  newcomers dealing with Application Forms;  teachers / students wanting sample “templates” to work from when researching / collecting material on topics like State & Local Geography, Important State Events, State History, The State Today; Important Local Events, Local History, The City Today; and  participants who live in or have special interest in California / the Los Angeles Area (the specific subject matter of the seven listed Modules).
Here are visuals of sample pages of the kinds of material mentioned above. Clicking on them will connect you to the Journey Through America I.M.
So with that much content-rich material, learners are sure to get what they need to become good citizens—or at least to obtain the skills necessary for fulfilling civics requirements—aren’t they? Not necessarily. Research—or more probably, experience—suggests that students exploring any subject matter are least inclined to retain information that they hear by lecture or read in text—but most likely to “learn by doing”—that is, through handling, reacting to, and interacting with relevant subject matter.
So what’s the hands-on component of the Journey Through America (English Through Citizenship) Package that will facilitate active teaching & learning? It’s a Game of Knowledge Board with six (6) Categories of Content represented by labeled spaces on a Path. The Content of these Questions & Answers references the Subject Matter of the Intermediate Level of A Journey Through America Student Text & I.M. In this Prototypical Game of Knowledge, these are divided into six (6) “Sub-Topics”:
Symbols, Holidays, & People (Icons, Official Celebrations, Famous Americans)
U.S. Geography (Geographical Features, Cities & States)
U.S. History (Addressing Six Historical Eras)
The Federal Government (Overview, Branches, Powers, Checks & Balances)
State & Local Government (Generic, to Apply to Any Locale)
Each of 54 Cards in each of the six (6) Decks of 54 Cards displays three (3) Kinds of Questions for which Answers are on their reverse sides.
Yes / No, for which responders have a 50% chance of guessing correctly if they don’t know an answer for sure;
Multiple-Choice, each Item with three (3) possible Answers, only one of which is correct, offering a 33% possibility of “getting it right” without knowledge; and
Wh-, in response to which participants have to give information that they think is correct.
To compete in the Game, players in turn roll a die, move their Marker that Number of Spaces forward, choose a Level 1, 2, or 3 Question to respond to, and advance that number of Spaces forward if they answer correctly. (If they don’t get an Answer right, they move backward either 1, 2, or 3 Spaces.)
Click on this title for a fuller description of H-02.13 English Through Citizenship / A Journey Through America: the Game. It was created before the concept of our Games of Knowledge existed. It’s available only in analog, print format, complete with all playing pieces, in a colorful reuseable box. An updated computer/digital - accessible version of its Question & Answer Cards is in development.
The online version further explores the idea that just about everybody learns better when information is built around Questions & Answers.
We will explore and detail this concept more fully in the next BLOG Post, to be titled:
H-02.14 Teach / Learn & Have Fun with a “Game of Knowledge” Called English Through Citizenship / A Journey Through America: the Game: Symbols, Holidays, & People; Geography & History; U.S. Constitution; Federal, State, & Local Government
In the meantime, here again are covers of the original, full sources of Americana, Citizenship, Civics, and/or Sheltered Social Studies Material for teachers / students who have progressed to or beyond Literacy / Beginning Learning Levels:
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